Critical Thinking and Problem Solving


1. Elina has trouble staying focused on any topic for very long. Which step is most useful for Elina?

Create a more rigid agenda.

React to external stimuli as they appear.

Prepare mentally and physically for the activity.

Adapt to new ideas and challenges.

2. Seppo holds on to certain biases that tend to cause some bad decisions and blunders in his life. How can Seppo improve?

by actively studying what went wrong in the past

by using more systematic reasoning

by studying logic and analysis

by striving for a more positive outlook

3. Why is it useful for a leader to begin a discussion with questions?

They can demonstrate your lack of knowledge.

They can confirm your assumptions.

They can stimulate conversation.

4. Why is it important to identify the purpose of an information source?

to understand the compensation required

to identify biases

to determine its appropriate use

to understand the format


1. In the PERT process, what must you do right before making your final plan?

Assess feasibility and make adjustments.

Build a timeline.

List subtasks and their interdependencies.

Identify the ultimate goal of the project.

2. When should you use participatory decision-making?

when additional expertise is needed

when you have a long timeline

when there are high-impact consequences

3. Why should you introduce some structure into your problem-solving methods?

to achieve a traceable result

to reduce conflict and achieve better decisions

to make everyone feel appreciated

to increase speed and reduce ambiguity


1. Atul wants to ensure that the current project embraces all cultural groups. Which type of criterion concerns Atul?





2. Why would buzz groups generate more ideas than a brainstorming session?

They require all participants to speak for a few minutes.

They give specific assignments to each participant.

They encourage quieter participants to speak up.

3. You are arguing to make a change to the current methods for accomplishing a task. Which type of statement are you making?




4. When limiting decision choices, what is the most important factor to consider?

It is okay if the final choice does not meet the success criteria.

Always use a cost-benefit analysis

Perfection is not necessary.

Multi-voting is preferable to single voting.

5. Why should you use an iterative process in solution implementation?

to engage stakeholders

to enable minimal effort

to constantly improve

to reduce costs


1. How can you avoid groupthink?

by appointing a devil’s advocate

by using the decisions of one small groupIncorrectOn the contrary, multiple groups can help develop alternate solutions.

by taking first impressions as finalIncorrectDecisions should be revisited after a cooling off period.

by letting the leader speak up and take charge

2. Pedro calls Maria a habitual liar and concludes that nothing she says is trustworthy. Which type of fallacy is Pedro exhibiting?


ad hominem


ad hoc

3. How can you best deal with situations in which you suspect cherry picking?

by asking for complete data covering the whole picture

by using labels for all axes

by using an ad hominem attack

by asking for baselines in all graphs


1. What can you use action plans for, in addition to leading to the implementation of your solution?

to guide decision-making

to provide a roadmap for future projects

to assess success and correct as needed

2. What type of logical fallacy is someone using when they attack your position by omitting key parts of your argument?

ad hominem

appeal to ignorance

ad hoc


3. High-functioning groups can encounter pitfalls that derail good problem-solving. What does it mean if a group centers itself?

It is overly skeptical of all solutions.

It focuses on agreement rather than dissent.

It follows the leader’s thinking.

4. Why is analysis of information sources important to your critical thinking?

You justify your position on a topic.

You make sure your sources are trustworthy.

You can credit the source of your information.

5. Why would you use buzz groups when leading your team to find solutions?

to provide a visual representation of the issue

to create extra buzz around the solutions

to ensure that everyone is comfortable participating

6. You are meeting a colleague who disagrees with you about the direction your team should take on a project. What can you do to keep your biases from affecting the conversation?

Think about how you can share your opinion without angering them.

Consider the issues from your colleague’s perspective.

Prepare for the conversation by anticipating their arguments.

7. What is a best practice that helps you stay focused and think critically during meetings?

Create an agenda and do not stray from it.

Mentally prepare by removing your biases.

Have a plan to follow up in case you miss anything.

8. How can asking questions help you become a critical thinker and better leader?

You validate your opinions.

You make sure your team is engaged.

You influence others.

9. What type of decision-making would you use to gain additional expertise and team buy-in, but also to retain the final say?

majority vote




10. What is a benefit of using the nominal group technique for problem-solving?

It is a way to ensure that everyone gets involved.

It provides insight on who voted for each solution.

It helps answer the most important question.

11. When using PERT for solving a large and complex problem, what is your last step?

Determine feasibility.

Isolate the critical path forward.

Identify the time needed.

Assess the order of events.

12. You are deciding on the logistics for a meeting. What type of assessment criteria are you using when you consider the number of attendees and size of the meeting rooms?





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