Critical Thinking for Better Judgment
Chapter Quiz: Critical Thinking for Better Judgment and Decision-Making (linkedin.com)
1. What is NOT a common critical thinking killer?
asking too many questions
hasty moral judgments
2. What causes us to bucketize items and miss important distinctions?
excessive reliance on authority
resistance to change
hasty moral judgments
1. The Critical Thinking Difference
1. Ivory is listening to a manager present statistics that they believe supports a new initiative. Which type of critical thinking question would Ivory most likely ask at this point?
Are we all agreeing on the meaning of this idea?
What can we safely assume?
Why are we doing this?
How strongly is our reasoning supported by relevant information?
2. Mack and his team have debated on what should be included in the next release of a product. However, they still believe there is more to consider. Which critical thinking condition is the team using?
ability to think strategically
ability to change one’s mind
3. Which choice is the best example of a critical thinking question?
How can we find out if this is true?
How can we solve this differently?
How can we do that?
What’s our mission?
4. You are in a meeting where a coworker is presenting a new product. You start asking questions about the market trends. Which type of thinking is this?
5. Which common element of thinking corresponds to the question, “What is the best way to interpret this information?”
6. Which is a necessary condition for critical thinking?
the ability to change your mind
2. Minimizing Bad Judgment
1. Which statement is true about fast thinking?
Fast thinking allows you to evaluate a decision.
Fast thinking enables you to withstand long meetings.
Fast thinking is prone to misleading biases and judgment errors.
Fast thinking is effortful.
2. Rasherz has done 10 analysis reports this month. His boss thinks Rasherz is on a streak. Which type of bias is Rasherz’s boss displaying?
3. Which statement reflects confirmation bias?
She doesn’t support the proposal.
Everyone we asked agreed with us
Nobody wants to hear from him
Her data suggests otherwise
4. Which statement reflects slow thinking?
My intuition suggests otherwise
I have a bad feeling about this
He looks happy about that
Let’s check the safety of that assumption.
3. Improving Decision Quality
1. Which statement does NOT reflect loss aversion?
I will not sell my house for less than what I paid for it.
Let’s not renegotiate because we may end up with a worse contract
You win a few, you lose a few.
Those who might lose will fight harder than those who might gain.Incorrect
2. Which type of counterfactual refers to an improved outcome?
3. Which technique is recommended for a loss aversion situation?
Analyze the quality of relevant information with the quality of irrelevant information.
Analyze the quality of a decision process separate from the quality of the people.
Analyze the quality of a decision process separate from the quality of the outcome.
Analyze the quality of the outcome with the quality of the alternatives.
4. What are the three conditions necessary to trust intuition?
regularity, exposure, feedback
exposure, confidence, feedback
reality, expertise, frequency
confidence, regularity, expertise
5. Which condition would you least rely on when deciding whether to use your intuition?
6. Indra is using counterfactual thinking to discover alternatives for a past unexpected outcome. What is the next step she should take?
Assess consequences of each modification.
Identify factors along the path to the outcome
Select one factor at a time to modify.
Generate a counterfactual.
4. Critical Thinking Fallacies
1. Which is a key benefit of spotting and avoiding fallacies?
knowing who to support
having more influence
separating fact from fiction
winning more arguments
2. Which statement does NOT reflect a potential planning fallacy?
Our situation is unique
Let’s find statistics from a similar project.
They took longer because they didn’t know what we know
Let’s go with our best-case scenario
3. Nathan is getting ready to lead a project. What would you recommend he do to avoid the planning fallacy?
Use your optimism.
Use the outside view
Use your intuition.
Use the inside view.
4. Armina has a message to give to her department in which the outcome is uncertain. How should she frame her argument?
Armina should use a gain frame
Armina should use a positive frame.
Armina should use a loss frame
Armina should use an emotional frame.
5. You are listening to coworkers and notice an ad hominem fallacy in their conversation. What do you need to caution against with this fallacy?
dismissing valid evidence from people with whom you do not agree
confusing correlation with causation
relying too much on your own experiences and jumping to conclusions
substituting sneaky arguments
6. Which statement is false?
Acme should win is a positive frame. “Widget should lose” is a negative frame.
Frames can’t make you think you see things that you don’t actually see
If the outcome is uncertain, loss-frames are more persuasive than gain-frames.
How information is presented influences your judgment and decisions in ways that can defy reason.
5. Creating the Critical Thinking Culture of Curiosity
1. Which type of questioning can you use to determine whether you are asking the right questions in a situation, and whether those questions are of the best quality?
2. Nellwyn hears about a problem in her department, and she needs to determine whether it is true. Which type of reasoning should Nellwyn use?
3. You are conducting a critical thinking workshop and using the circles of competence mental model with your team. What is the most important aspect you should consider when using this model?
You should consider the size of the circle
It highlights what we know.
It identifies our lack of knowledge
You should know its boundaries
4. What are the three types of bucket questions?
knowledge, authority, critical
assessment, agreement, discernment
knowledge, opinion, judgment
five whys, biased, knowledge