1. What are the three components of critical thinking?
truth, justice, wisdom
reliability, relevance, validity
algorithms, biases, validity
reliability, equality, fairness
2. What is quantum thinking?
The ability to understand superposition.
The ability to hold two or more opposing thoughts in your head at the same time.
The ability to understand the small problems that create large problems.
The ability to explain how things work.
3. What is the quintessential question that underlies critical thinking?
What’s the root cause of this problem?
How can we explore this problem from a different perspective?
How can we find out if this conclusion is really true?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of this option?
4. What does validity deal with?
5. Which statement is false?
Giving the benefit of doubt means getting the benefit of doubt
Giving the benefit of doubt places too much emphasis on intention.
Giving the benefit of doubt can get you better evidence to inform your beliefs.
Believing a claim without doubt prioritizes speed and efficiency over validity.
6. How do you know if you have intellectual courage?
You can’t assess this for yourself.
You are a brave person who knows you.
You’re willing to fairly face ideas, beliefs, and viewpoints that you disagree with
You’re willing to give others a chance to explain their positions.
7. What are the three main challenges when evaluating the reliability of evidence?
inaccurate people, bogus studies, ignoring the truth
biases, bad data, mistaking reliability for accuracy
small sample sizes, unrepresentative samples, not relying on experts
lack of access, lack of understanding, lack of attention to detail
8. When it comes to empathy, which statement is true?
Empathy doesn’t really help us understand others.
It’s more accurate to empathize with a group with a shared goal because they tend to share the same motives.
The more people we empathize with, the more we’re willing to help.
Assuming we know makes us understand less.
9. Which statement is false?
The quantity of thinking is as important as the quality of thinking.
Overthinking is not the opposite of underthinking.
Underthinking comes from assuming we know the future.
Overthinking comes from dwelling about the past.
10. What are the two clearest ways to determine relevance?
Check for logical fallacies and use “how” questions.
Avoid conflicts of interest.
Check to make sure the evidence you use is peer reviewed.
Avoid using evidence from people who aren’t experts.
11. How do you develop mental agility?
Truly understand that your job is unique.
Become familiar with best practices.
Be clear about your value.
Get curious about unfamiliar topics and seek new ideas that don’t apply to your life in obvious ways.
12. What is the most effective way to practice critical thinking?
You do not need to keep practicing once you’ve started thinking critically.
Note when others are not being critical thinkers.
Spend time each day asking yourself critical thinking questions.
Improve your diet and exercise regularly.