The Sustainable Development Goals – A global, transdisciplinary vision for the future

The Sustainable Development Goals – A global, transdisciplinary vision for the future

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Quiz – 1

Q1. How many SDGs and associated targets were agreed upon under the Agenda 2030?

17 SDGs and 17 targets

17 SDGs and 169 targets

20 SDGs and 30 targets

20 SDGS and 169 targets

Q2. According to Katherine Richardson, what is Agenda 2030 essentially about?

Reducing gender inequality

A more fair distribution of Earth’s limited resources

Increasing the standards of living for people living in developing countries

Fighting climate change

Q3. In addition to the concept of intergenerational equity, the Brundtland Report (“Our Common Future”), published in 1987, stated three pillars of sustainability. Which three?

Intergovernmental sustainability

Technological sustainability

Social sustainability

Planetary sustainability

Economic sustainability

Environmental sustainability

Educational sustainability

Q4. How do we measure progress through the SDG framework?

Through statements given by politicians

Through media reports

Through indicators used to measure the global status of the SDGs

Q5. What is green GDP?

An attempt to calculate the costs of Agenda 2030 for each country

A measure consisting solely of sustainable activities such as construction of windmills

An attempt to account for the effects of economic activity on the environment

Q6. What are the means to direct the patterns of consumption and production in a more sustainable direction according to Michael Hauschild?

Life cycle impacts of the production and consumption can be quantified, which enables taxation of products based on their impacts, and the market can hereby direct demand in a more sustainable direction.

Governments should introduce differentiated taxation on companies based on the life cycle impacts of their products and services.

Campaigning for sustainable consumption will be the most effective way forward, since unsustainable consumption will become a socially unacceptable behavior.

Q7. Which of the following statements provides the correct understanding of the interlinkages between the SDGs?

The SDGS are interlinked with both positive interactions and trade-offs

Fulfilling one goal of the 17 SDGs cancels the fulfilling of other goals

There are only positive interactions between the SDGS

Q8. How would the reconstruction of buildings and roads after a natural disaster affect the GDP?

Nothing happens to GDP, since reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure will add no new value

For a while it would increase GDP, because the reconstruction creates economic activity

GDP would decrease because of the costs to reconstruct

Q9. The Executive summary of the ICSU report highlights an analysis of Goal 2 and the key interactions with other goals. Which of the statements below best describes how agricultural production is related to Goal 13 on climate change?

Sustainable agricultural practices play an important role in climate adaptation and mitigation

There are no interactions between Goal 2 and Goal 13, because there are no greenhouse gas emissions related to agricultural production

There is a positive relation, because the impacts of climate change such as extreme weather events will enable more agricultural production

Quiz 2

Q1. Why was the term ‘Anthropocene’, introduced by Paul Crutzen, coined to represent the present epoch in Earth’s history?

Because of the human activities are impacting Earth at the global level

Because fossil fuels used today were deposited in that geological period

Because the human population is greater than any time before in the Earth’s history

Because of the discovery of human induced global warming

Q2. What is the greenhouse effect?

A process in which various gasses (carbon dioxide; methane; nitrous oxide) absorb and trap the heat radiating from the Sun

The greenhouse effect is another term for climate change

A process in which various gasses (carbon dioxide; methane; nitrous oxide) absorb and trap the heat radiating from the Earth’s surface

A process in which the Sun’s temperature continuously rises, causing global warming on Earth

Q3. What is the IPCC?

An organisation set up under the UNFCCC with the aim of achieving SDG #13 : Climate Action

An international panel of scientists under the UNFCCC whose role is to assess scientific information concerning the potential human interaction with the climate

A scientific panel under the UNFCCC who helped develop the framework of Agenda 2030

An agreement under the UNFCCC on limiting human induced global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius

Q4. Which one of the statements is the correct definition of a planetary boundary?

A tipping point for critical Earth systems which humans may not surpass

A boundary above which there is an increased risk of changes in the overall conditions in the critical Earth Systems

A limit for the amount of greenhouse gasses that can be released to the atmosphere to avoid the negative consequences of global warming

A threshold for Earth systems, which, if passed, will lead to irreversible changes

Q5. According to Campbell et al., 2017, which five Planetary Boundaries have been surpassed?

Freshwater use

Ocean acidification

Biogeochemical flows

Novel entities

Climate change

Biosphere integrity

Atmospheric aerosol loading

Land-system change

Stratospheric ozone depletion

Q6. How is the Montreal Protocol relevant for the Planetary Boundary framework?

International Planetary Boundaries for seven critical Earth processes were agreed upon in the Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol helped reduce the amount of CO₂ in the atmosphere, avoiding human perturbation of Climate Change beyond the zone of uncertainty

The Montreal Protocol was the basis for the research on Planetary Boundaries

The Montreal protocol helped reduce damage to the ozone layer, returning human perturbation to a safe level

Q7. Which components make up biosphere integrity?

Biosphere integrity is another term for biodiversity, meaning the variety of species of plants and animals on the Earth

Biosphere integrity refers to the number and health of species of animals, including extinction rates, on the Earth

Biosphere integrity includes number of species, including extinction rates, as well as intactness and performance of ecosystems

Biosphere integrity means that humans are not causing harm to animals and plants

Q8. Define “resilience” in a sustainable development context

The capacity to recover from sudden or long-term change

Communities’ ability to prevent climate change

An individual’s ability to manage changes on its own

A characteristic of developed countries causing increased wealth

Q9. What areas within disaster research do Kristian Lauta highlight as being crucial to strengthening resilience?

Moving responsibility for dealing with adaptation from the institutions to the individual level

Understanding of natural processes causing natural hazards

Building strong communities and institutions

Quiz 3

Q1. Why is a ‘systems approach’ necessary for sustainable development?

A systems approach helps decision makers to understand the big picture with both positive and negative interactions of sustainable development initiatives

A systems approach enables decision makers to put all their effort into improvements of a few selected SDGs

A systems approach enables decision makers to cherry-pick a single SDG and highlight the improvements without considering other SDGs

Q2. How does climate change relate to hunger and malnutrition?

There is a clear relationship between climate change and hunger, and the numbers of under nourished people are expected to increase because of climate change

There is no relationship between changes in our climate and hunger

There is a clear relationship between climate change and hunger, and the amount of starving people is expected to decrease because of climate change

Q3. What are the expected consequences of rising sea levels highlighted in the report on Hunger and Climate Change by WFP?

Increased amount of water resources which will improve conditions for agricultural production

Contamination and salinization of water supplies and agricultural lands

Improvements of water quality and availability

Q4. What is the role of research in policy making?

There is a limited interface between research and policy

Research is rarely useful for policy making

Research helps us understand the world better, thus enabling better decision making regarding our interactions with the rest of the world

Q5. Based on Kate Raworth’s analysis of inequality, which of the following is the correct assessment of the statement : “Inequliaty is inevitable when you have growth”?

Inequality is an outcome of the economic institutions that we have created

The Kuznets Curve support this statement emphasizing that it has to get worse, before it can get better

Wealth need to be concentrated in the hands of the wealthy in order to kick-start growth in the economy

Q6. How much of all household wealth does the 1% wealthiest of the global population own?

30,1% of all household wealth

40,1% of all household wealth

50,1% of all household wealth

60,1% of all household wealth

Q7. Which of the figures illustrates the correct development of private and public capital?

Figure 3

Q8. Why might businesses want to engage in Agenda 2030?

The markets will not change in the coming decades, so the businesses have no incentive to engage in the SDGs

Businesses that deliver solutions to problems raised by Agenda 2030 are essential in solving social and environmental problems

The sustainable development of the business sector is not necessary in meeting the targets of Agenda 2030

Q9. Which of the following are examples of “pull” factors in the achievement of sustainable development?

Civil society groups



NGO’s (non-governmental organisations)

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